How 3D Integrated Circuits Work?

How 3D Integrated Circuits Work?

Integrated circuit (IC) was invented in 1958, allowing greater power to be compressed into a smaller space. A very effective replacement for buzzing vacuum tubes that is thousand times less powerful than a current laptop and 100 times smaller than the ENIAC of the 1940s.

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What are 3D Integrated Circuits?

A three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) is a MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) IC made by stacking silicon wafers or dies vertically and interconnecting them with Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) or Cu-Cu connections to make them behave as a single device with lower power and smaller footprint than conventional two-dimensional processes. The 3D IC is one of the several 3D integration systems that take advantage of the z-direction in microelectronics and nano-electronics to improve electrical performance.

On a silicon wafer, IC are a reduced combination of diodes, microprocessors, and transistors. Each of these components has a certain role. When these are connected, they may do calculations and several tasks.

How Does a 3D Integrated Circuit Work?

3D IC and Technology:

The interconnect hierarchy of 3D integrated circuits may be divided into three levels: global (package), intermediate (bond pad), and local (transistor). 3D integration covers a wide range of technologies, including 3D wafer-level packaging (3DWLP), 2.5D and 3D interposer-based integration, 3D stacked ICs (3D-SICs), monolithic 3D ICs, 3D heterogeneous integration, and 3D systems integration. 3D ICs are commonly employed in NAND flash memory and mobile devices as of the 2010s.

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What are the Components of an Integrated Circuit?

  1. Diodes: Diodes are electrical components that regulate the flow of electricity in a circuit. Diodes also regulate the direction of the current, allowing it to flow solely in particular directions.
  2. Transistors: These components store voltages or act as circuit stabilizers. They can be used to both magnify and switch signals in digital circuits. With the use of a gate that opens at a specific voltage, they easily let a specific amount of voltage into the circuit.
  3. Microprocessors: The most significant component of integrated circuits is the microprocessor. The purpose of this is to supply memory to the system. Memory may also do calculations and follow a set of rules or logic. This instructs the CPU to process the system’s data and electricity. As a result, it becomes the integrated circuit’s operating system, allowing the components to communicate with one another.

Integrated circuits are now found in nearly every electrical device, from televisions to wristwatches, and from computers to juicers. Because anything can be built and manufactured using discrete electrical components and then merged into an integrated circuit, the possibilities for ICs are virtually limitless.

Applications of IC:

Audio amplifiers, logic devices, memory devices, radiofrequency decoders and encoders, and video processors are all instances of integrated circuits. However, computing is one of the most common uses for integrated circuits. As a result, instead of thousands of transistors as in prior computers, today’s PCs feature only a few ICs.

Application Specific IC (ASIC):

One of the applications of Integrated Circuits is the ASIC chip, which is designed to fulfil a specific purpose rather than being a general-purpose chip. ASICs are used in a variety of applications, including digital voice recorders.

ASIC Design with A Structured Layout:

Metal oxide semiconductor technology or MOS integrated circuit chips are used to make ASIC chips. In the semiconductor industry, structured ASIC chip design, also known as platform ASIC design, is a new trend.

Full-Custom ASIC:

The full-custom ASIC chip design, which defines all of the device’s photolithographic layers, is another ASIC design used in the industry and used for both ASIC and regular product design. Reduced space, improved performance, and analogue component integration are all advantages of a full-custom design.

Semi-Custom Design and Gate Array:

This is another technique of production of integrated circuits in which diffused layers are predetermined and electronic wafers are retained in stock before the metallization step. Transistors and other active devices make up the diffused layers. To know more about IC in detail, get in touch with the best VLSI institute, ChipEdge today. ChipEdge, a leading VLSI training institute provides VLSI courses online.



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