Bridging Fault Model: Understanding and Mitigating Circuit Failures

Bridging Fault Model: Understanding and Mitigating Circuit Failures

In the realm of digital circuit design, the reliable and accurate functioning of integrated circuits (ICs) is of utmost importance. Any faults or errors in these circuits can lead to undesirable consequences, ranging from system malfunctions to severe financial losses. One common type of fault that can occur in ICs is known as a bridging fault. Bridging faults can impede the proper flow of signals, causing erroneous behavior and failure within a circuit. So let us understand about the bridging fault model in the article below.

What are Bridging Faults?

A bridging fault occurs when there is a short between two signal lines in a digital circuit.

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This unintended connection can be a result of various causes, including manufacturing defects, physical damage, or degradation over time. The bridging fault model is employed to represent and analyze such faults systematically.

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What are the Functions of Bridging Fault Model?

The bridge fault model is often used to depict the logic behavior that exists between signal lines.  The wired-AND/wired-OR bridge fault model is a specific variation of the bridging fault model used in digital circuit testing. It specifically represents the behavior of shorted lines as either logic AND or logic OR values of the two defective nodes involved.

Bridging fault model assumes that one line is intended to have a dominant influence on the logic value of the other line. In other words, one of the shorted lines is expected to determine the logic value while the other line’s value is overridden.

By incorporating the wired-AND/wired-OR bridge fault model and the dominant bridging fault model, circuit designers and testers can effectively simulate and analyze the impact of bridging faults on circuit functionality and develop strategies to detect and diagnose such faults.

In the dominant bridging fault,If both shorted signal lines have the same value, the function’s answer will be the same.

If the signal lines have different values, any of them will be driven, allowing the function’s output to be determined.

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Effects of Bridging Faults

The presence of bridging faults can have significant ramifications on circuit behavior, potentially leading to catastrophic failures. Some of the effects include:

  1. Bridging faults can introduce additional paths for current to flow, causing variations in signal propagation delays. This deviation from expected timing can disrupt the synchronization of different parts of a circuit, leading to incorrect data processing.
  2. The presence of bridging faults can result in unintended current leakage or excessive power dissipation. This energy loss not only affects the overall efficiency of the circuit but can also lead to thermal issues.
  3. Bridging faults can manifest as logical errors within a circuit, causing it to produce incorrect outputs or fail to operate altogether. These failures can be particularly critical in safety-critical systems or high-reliability applications.


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